Centurion Laboratories Private Limited
All About Modafinil
Modafinil is a drug that promotes wakefulness. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration, a federal agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, approved the use of Modafinil for treating narcolepsy, a condition characterized by an uncontrollable desire to sleep. It is also used to treat sleeping problems and sleep apnea, a medical disorder wherein a person experiences periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
How Modafinil Works
In general, it is a wakefulness-promoting drug utilized for treating various kinds of somnipathy such as idiopathic hypersomnia, Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), associated with the most common type of sleep apnea, ODS, and Shift Work Sleep Disorder (SWSD).
Modafinil serves as a selective and weak Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor (DRI), a type of drug that inhibits the reuptake of both norepinephrine and dopamine. DRIs increase dopaminergic neurotransmissions as well as increase extracellular concentrations of Dopamine.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter, a substance released by nerve cells to send brain signals to other neurons. It plays a vital role in increasing productivity, focus, and motivation since it is a major component of the execution of incentive salience, a cognition that bestows a want or a desirable attribute. Low dopamine levels in the body can lead to fatigue, memory loss, mood swings, and lack of motivation.
Moreover, the norepinephrine, a hormone that serves as a neurotransmitter, exerts powerful effects on several brain areas such as the sympathetic ganglia and other brain regions that regulate sleep, attention, and learning. Its general function is to mobilize the body and the brain for action.
Moderate to high levels of dopamine and norepinephrine significantly increases electrical activity in the brain. This can improve memory, wakefulness, and thinking skills. Truckers, college students, and call center agents utilize modafinil for off-label uses to increase productivity and to repel drowsiness. Physicians also prescribe this drug for numerous other medical conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), multiple sclerosis, and depression.
Modafinil raises levels of nervous activity in the body. Without producing the euphoria and addiction of amphetamines and without experiencing jitters that caffeine can bring, modafinil stimulates the brain. It is being sold under the brand name Provigil.
As stated earlier, Provigil is a wakefulness-promoting drug. It is used orally. Modafinil is a racemate, a racemic compound, and C15H15NO2S is its molecular formula.
Physically, modafinil is an off-white or a white crystalline powder. It is insoluble in cyclohexane and water; it is slightly or sparingly soluble in acetone and methanol.
A Provigil tablet contains either 200mg or 100 mg of modafinil and other inactive ingredients such as lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, povidone, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, and microcrystalline cellulose.
Generally, this drug reduces extreme drowsiness due to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. It is utilized to help an individual stay awake during graveyard shifts.
Modafinil is also a eugeroic, an agent that causes arousal and good wakefulness, utilized for treating various sleep disorders and EDS, a condition characterized by lack of energy and persistent sleepiness during the daytime.
When it comes to its occupational use, the armed forces of several countries have utilized modafinil as a substitute to amphetamine. This drug is traditionally employed in lengthy missions and in combat situations where soldiers face food and sleep deprivation.
The Foreign Legion utilized the drug in some covert operations. The Indian Air Force proclaimed that they included it in their contingency plans.
In the U.S military, the use of Provigil has been approved on certain missions in the air force. As of 2012, Provigil is the only go pill approved by the United States Air Force for managing fatigue.
The Canadian Medical Association Journal, a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the CMA or the Canadian Medical Association, reported that the drug is utilized by astronauts, who are aboard the International Space Station (ISS), to complete long-term missions. It has been written that the drug is made available to the crew to help with the reduced sleep quality that astronauts experience and with the disruptions in circadian rhythm, and to bolster performance when fatigued.
How to Use Modafinil
If this drug is prescribed to you by a physician to treat your medical condition, it is best to follow your medical practitioner’s medication guide. Make sure to mention other coexisting illnesses if you have one.
In general, 30-50 mg modafinil per day is enough for healthy people. The effect lasts for 6-8 hours. You can take it in early in the morning even without food. If you want to get all of its benefits, take this drug regularly.
For narcolepsy, take modafinil by mouth once a day or as directed by your trusted physician. Depending on your condition, some doctors will divide the daily does into a noon dose and a morning dose.
For OSA or Obstructive Sleep Apnea, the recommended dosage is 200mg per day taken orally in the morning. A 400 mg per day dosage is well tolerated, but there is no evidence that the dose bestows additional benefits.
For SWD or Shift Work Disorder, 200 mg per day is the recommended dosage as a single dose one hour before your work shift starts.
For patients who are suffering from severe hepatic impairment, 100 mg per day taken orally is the prescribed dosage.
For geriatric patients, it is advisable to give 30-50mg per day only and to monitor the elderly patient.
Modafinil tablets must be stored at 68° to 77° F or 20° to 25° C.
How Modafinil Enhances The Brain and The Mood of An Individual
In adults, this drug improves reaction time, vigilance, motivation, and vigor.
According to a study conducted by the University of Cambridge, Modafinil is effective in reducing bad decisions or impulse response.
It bolsters brain function of sleep-deprived individuals.
Modafinil has been known to boost IQ levels.
Is Modafinil Safe?
Modafinil is safe to use. It is not addictive; however, one must not abuse its use. It is not recommended to utilize it deliberately to stay awake.
The Things That You Need to Tell Your Physician before Taking This Drug
If you are taking other medications, you have to tell your doctor the names of those drugs. Ensure that you will not experience any side effects when you are taking Modafinil along with other medicine or if you have other health problems aside from the condition that Modafinil will treat.
It is recommended to consult your doctor before taking this drug in case you are allergic to it.
If you experience any allergic reactions, such as fever, skin irritation, or nausea, seek the advice of a medical practitioner immediately so that he or she can prescribe you with the right dosage that is optimal for your body and health.
Tell the physician about the allergy and the symptoms that you have experienced like itching, shortness of breath, cough, and rash.
If you have heart valve problems or any heart disease, ask your doctor first whether it is safe for you to take in Modafinil.
Cautions When Taking Provigil
You must tell all your health care providers that you are taking modafinil. This includes your nurses, dentists, doctors, and pharmacists.
Until you get used to the effect of modafinil, take caution driving or in doing dangerous actions or tasks.
Do not increase your dosage of the drug without asking your doctor first.
While you are taking modafinil, check your blood pressure regularly, and if there are adverse changes, discuss it with your trusted physician.
It is recommended to refrain from drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes.
Limit caffeine and chocolate intake. Other than coffee, cola and tea are also known beverages that often contain caffeine. Modafinil does not cause jitters or nervousness, but if you take one in and you often drink coffee, you may experience shakiness and nausea.
If you are sixty-five years old or older, consult your doctor first before taking this drug.
Modafinil is not recommended for children.
Whether you are pregnant or you are planning to conceive, talk to your doctor to discuss the risks and the benefits of using Provigil.
When you are taking this drug, hormone-based birth control methods, such as birth control pills, may not work to prevent fertilization. Utilize other kinds of contraceptives. Also, tell your physician if you experience breakthrough bleeding or spotting since these are signs of the inefficacy of your birth control method.
Seek the advice of medical practitioner if you are breastfeeding an infant.
What if You Miss A Dose?
Take the dose as soon as you remember that have missed it.
If it is already evening, skip a dose, and just take it in the morning.
Do not take extra doses.
A drug interaction, a situation wherein a substance affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together, can change the effect of modafinil on your body. That’s why it is extremely important to consult your doctor first if you are using other drugs before taking modafinil. Keep a list of all the products that you are using. This includes herbals and nonprescription and prescription drugs.
Street drugs like MDMA and methamphetamine have been known to cause adverse effects when coadministered with Provigil. In addition, using opioids, such as fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone, and other drugs can decrease plasma levels in your body.
In addition, modafinil can hasten the removal of other substances in your system. This affects their efficacy. Some of the affected drugs are bosutinib, axitinib, and certain product that are utilized to treat hepatitis C such as ritonavir, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and asunaprevir.
Furthermore, some drugs, when coadministered with Provigil, increases blood pressure and heart rate. This doesn’t mean that you can’t use such products while administering modafinil. Seek the advice of your physician and ask about the safe doses that can work well with modafinil.
Lastly, modafinil is similar to armodafinil, so do not take medicines that contain armodafinil when you are using Provigil.
Research and Other Uses
In the U.S., modafinil is used to treat ADHD in children in some cases. It is believed that modafinil’s stimulant-like and alertness promoting effects can help in managing the symptoms of both ADD and ADHD.
In studies conducted with samples that have ADHD, it was indicated that modafinil can improve scores on various attention and memory tests like short-term memory, visual, stop-signal motor inhibition, and spatial planning tests.
Armodafinil and modafinil have been studied for the treatment of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis conducted in 2015 revealed that armodafinil and modafinil can slightly decrease the occurrences of negative symptoms in individuals who are suffering from acute schizophrenia.
A study conducted in 2015 revealed that modafinil can improve memory, learning, and attention span. Some of the samples exhibited improved divergent thinking, a method or thought process utilized to generate creative ideas by coming up with and exploring numerous possible solutions.
Furthermore, when complex assessments are used, modafinil causes enhancement of executive functions, a set of mental skills for getting things done.
Post-chemotherapy Cognitive Impairment
Some people who are experiencing Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) due to previous chemotherapy treatments have been using modafinil as an off-label drug in treating symptoms of chemobrain. The symptoms include impairment in thinking and memory.
Modafinil can slightly induce weight loss. Researchers have indicated that Provigil users were able to lose some weight. They were able to lose up to 10% of their original BMI. Many people rejoiced of this unexpected side effect. Compared to diet pills, modafinil does not naturally increase one’s heart rate and blood pressure.
The increase in orexin and histamine levels in the brain due to modafinil intake plays a vital role in reducing body weight and keeping it off. The drug can increase concentrations of orexin in the central nervous system. This neuropeptide is responsible for keeping an individual awake and controlling one’s appetite. Both orexin and histamine are neurotransmitters that have been known to help in reducing food intake.
Provigil is a smart drug, a substance or a drug that is known to enhance concentration, memory, and other mental or executive functions. It enhances cognitive function in various ways without causing major side effects. When it comes to its efficacy, it is much better than amphetamines and other racemic drugs that promotes wakefulness. Modafinil has only few side effects, and it is not a stimulant, but a eugeroic. It is also a non-addictive agent, unlike other DRIs.